A WEALTH OF ACTIVE PRINCIPLES

Cordycepin (3′-deoxyadenosine, m.p. 225 OC, α D- 47 OC) is the main bioactive component of Cordyceps militaris: a nucleoside analogue considered as a nucleic acid antibiotic. Recent in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated that it may possess multiple pharmacological actions, including:

Numerous studies have shown that C. militaris has a protective effect against high glucose-induced oxidative stress in human endothelial cells and related complications.

Chu HL, Chien JC, Duh PD (2011). Protective effect of Cordyceps militaris against high glucose-induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Food Chem. 129:871–876. (Read abstract)

Yu RM, Yang W, Song LY, Yan CY, Zhang Z, Zhao Y (2007). Structural characterization and antioxidant activity of a polysaccharide from the fruiting bodies of cultured Cordycceps militaris Charbohydrate Polym, 70, pp. 430-436. (Read full paper)

Choi SB, Park CH, Choi MK, Jun DW, Park S (2004). Improvement of insulin resistance and insulin secretion by water extracts of Cordyceps militaris, Phellinus linteus, and Paecilomyces tenuipes in 90% pancreatectomized rats Biosci Biotechnol Biochem, 68 (11), pp. 2257-2264. (Read full paper)

Steroidogenesis is the synthetic process in which steroids are formed through a series of enzymatic reactions, producing a wide array of bioactive interrelated signaling molecules. It has been revealed by researchers that this process is aroused in the presence of cordycepin.

Pan B-S, Lin C-Y, Huang BM (2011). “The effect of cordycepin on steroidogenesis and apoptosis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells.” Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine, 2011, Article ID 750468, 14 pages. (Read full paper)

Leu S-F, Poon S-L, Pao H-Y, Huang B-M (2011). “The in vivo and in vitro stimulatory effects of cordycepin on mouse Leydig cell steroidogenesis”. Biosci. Biotechn. Biochem., 75(4):723–731. (Read full paper)

Pao HY, Pan BS, Leu SF, Huang BM (2012). “Cordycepin stimulated steroidogenesis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells through the protein kinase C pathway”. J. Agricultural Food Chem., 60(19):4905–4913. (Read abstract)

Shih IL, Tsai KL, Hsieh C (2007). Effects of culture conditions on the mycelial growth and bioactive metabolite production in submerged culture of Cordyceps militaris Biochem Eng J, 33, pp. 193-201. (Read full paper)

Studies have indicated the antihyperlipidemic effects of cordycepin, which occur due to the inhibition of total cholesterol and total triglycerides synthesis in the liver. Total cholesterol and total triglycerides are closely linked to cardiovascular diseases, thus cordycepin could be used in the treatment of hyperlipidemia where there is a high risk of stroke and heart disease.

Yang BK, Ha JY, Jeong SC, et al. (2010). Production of exo-polymers by submerged mycelial culture of Cordyceps militaris and its hypolipidemic effect. J. Microbiol. Biotechnol., 10:784–8. (Read full paper)

Guo P, Kai Q, Gao J, et al. (2010). Cordycepin prevents hyperlipidemia in hamsters fed a high-fat diet via activation of AMP-activated protein kinase. J. Pharm. Sci., 113:395–403. (Read full paper)

Yu R, Song L, Zhao Y, Bin W, Wang L, Zhang H,  et al (2004). Isolation and biological properties of polysaccharide CPS-1 from cultured Cordyceps militaris Fitoterapia, 75, pp. 465-472. (Read abstract)

Shen Q, Chen S (2001). Effect of Cordycceps militaris on the damage of rats induced by n-hexane Zhong Yao Cai, 24, pp. 112-116. (Read abstract)

In cases of immunotherapy, immune responses are persuaded, amplified, reduced or prevented according to therapeutic goals. Research has shown that adenosine has immunomodulatory properties and it could be a potential candidate in such cases.

Cho HJ, Cho JY, Rhee MH, Park HJ (2007). Cordycepin (3’- deoxyadenosine) inhibits human platelet aggregation in a cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent manner. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 558:43–51. (Read Full Paper)

Lee JS, Hong EK. (2011). Immunostimulating activity of the polysaccharides isolated from Cordyceps militaris. Int. Immunopharmacol., 11:1226–33. (Read abstract)

Lin YW, Chiang BH (2008). Anti-tumor activity of the fermentation broth of Cordyceps militaris cultured in the medium of Radix astragali Proc Biochim, 43, pp. 244-250. (Read abstract)

Shih IL, Tsai KL, Hsieh C (2007). Effects of culture conditions on the mycelial growth and bioactive metabolite production in submerged culture of Cordyceps militaris Biochem Eng J, 33, pp. 193-201. (Read full paper)

Mao XB, Zhong JJ (2006). Significant effect of NH4+ on cordycepin production by submerged cultivation of medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris Enzyme Microb Technol, 38, pp. 343-350. (Read abstract)

Sone Y, Okuda R, Wada N (1985). Structures and antitumor activities of the polysaccharides isolated from fruiting body and the growing culture of mycelium of Ganoderma lucidium Agric Biol Chem, 49, pp. 2641-2653. (Read abstract)

Insecticidal activities have been revealed for the use of cordycepin as a potential Plutella xylostella control agent or as a lead compound.

Ahn YJ, Park SJ, Lee SG, et al (2000). Cordycepin: selective growth inhibitor derived from liquid culture of Cordyceps militaris against Clostridium spp. J. Agric. Food Chem., 48:2744–8. (Read abstract)

Mao XB, Zhong JJ (2006). Significant effect of NH4+ on cordycepin production by submerged cultivation of medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris Enzyme Microb Technol, 38, pp. 343-350. (Read abstract)

Kim JR, Yeon SH, Kim HS, Ahn YJ. (2002a). Larvicidal activity against Plutella xylostella of cordycepin from the fruiting body of Cordyceps militaris. Pest Manag Sci, 58:713–17. (Read abstract)

Kim JR, Yeon SH, Kim HS, Ahn YJ. (2002a). Larvicidal activity against Plutella xylostella of cordycepin from the fruiting body of Cordyceps militaris. Pest Manag Sci, 58:713–17. (Read abstract)

Baik JS, Kwon HY, Kim KS, Jeong YK, Cho YS, Lee YC. (2012). Cordycepin induces apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SK-N-BE(2)-C and melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells. Indian J. Biochem. Biophys., 49:86–91. (Read full paper)

Gu YX, Want ZS, Li SX, Yuan QS (2007). Effects of multiple factors on accumulation of nucleosides and bases in Corydyceps militaris Food Chem, 102, pp. 1304-1309. (Read abstract)

Ribeizo JA (1995). Purinergic inhibition of neurotransmitter release in the central nervous system Pharm Toxicol, 77 (5), pp. 299-305. (Read abstract)

A study suggests that cordlan could increase the efficiency of dendritic cells-based cancer immunotherapy.

Baik JS, Kwon HY, Kim KS, Jeong YK, Cho YS, Lee YC. (2012). Cordycepin induces apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SK-N-BE(2)-C and melanoma SK-MEL-2 cells. Indian J. Biochem. Biophys., 49:86–91. (Read full paper)

Kodama EN, McCaffrey RP, Yusa K, Mitsuya H (2000). Antileukemic activity and mechanism of action of cordycepin against terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-positive (TdT+) leukemic cells. Biochem. Pharmacol., 59: 273-281. (Read abstract)

Overgaard-Hansen K (1964). The inhibition of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate formation by cordycepin triphosphate n extracts of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. Biochim. Biophys. Acta., 80: 504-507. (Read abstract)

Paterson RRM (2008). “Cordyceps—a traditional Chinese medicine and another fungal therapeutic biofactory?” Phytochemistry, 69(7)1469–1495. (Read abstract)

Pao HY, Pan BS, Leu SF, Huang BM (2012). “Cordycepin stimulated steroidogenesis in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells through the protein kinase C pathway”. J. Agricultural Food Chem., 60(19):4905–4913. (Read abstract)

Kim HS, Kim JY, Kang JS, et al. (2010). Cordlan polysaccharide isolated from mushroom Cordyceps militaris induces dendritic cell maturation through toll-like receptor 4 signalings. Food Chem. Toxicol., 48:1926–33. (Read abstract)

Various research has demonstrated that proteins such as haemagglutinin, a glycoprotein found on the surface of influenza viruses, have inhibitory activity for the HIV virus.

Wong JH, Wang H, Ng TB (2009). A haemagglutinin from the medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris, Biosci. Rep., 29: 321-327. (Read full paper)

Mueller WEG, Weiler BE, Charubala R, Pfleiderer W, Leserman L, Sobol RW, et al. (1991). Cordycepin analogues of 2’5′-oligoadenylate inhibit human immunodeficiency virus infection via inhibition of reverse transcriptase. Biochemistry, 30, pp. 2027-2033. (Read full paper)

Researches have proved that C. militaris extract has anti-inflammatory activity in acute colitis, by down-regulating the production of inflammatory mediators (i.e. molecules that are released by immune cells when harmful agents invade the organism) and suggest that cordycepin could be applied for prevention or treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases.

Kim SK, Kim SW, Lee SC, Kim IW (2006). World Pat. No. WO2008038973. (Read patent)

Han ES, Oha JY, Park H-J (2011). Cordyceps militaris extract suppresses dextran sodium sulfate-induced acute colitis in mice and production of inflammatory mediators from macrophages and mast cells. J. Ethnopharmac. 134:703–710. (Read abstract)

Yu R, Song L, Zhao Y, Bin W, Wang L, Zhang H et al (2004). Isolation and biological properties of polysaccharides CPS-1 from cultured Cordyceps militaris. Fitoterapia, 75, pp. 465-472. (Read abstract)

Won SY, Park EH (2005). Anti-inflammatory and related pharmacological activities of cultured mycelia and fruiting bodies of Cordyceps militaris. J. Ethnopharm. 96:555–61. (Read abstract)

Qian G-M, Pan G-F, Guo J-Y (2012). “Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive effects of cordymin, a peptide purified from the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps sinensis”. Natural Product Research, 26 (24):2358–2362. (Read abstract)

Kim HG, Shrestha B, Lim SY, et al (2006). Cordycepin inhibits lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation by the suppression of NF-kappaB through Akt and p38 inhibition in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 545:192–9. (Read abstract)

Cordycepin inhibits the process of developing new blood vessels (angiogenesis). Research has shown that cordycepin has significant properties on angiogenesis and tumor growth, thus it could be a good candidate for diseases associated with angiogenesis, such as arteriosclerosis, myocardial infarction, limb ischemia, retinopathies, benign and malignant angiogenic tumors.

Nan JX, Park EJ, Yang BK, Song CH, Ko G, Sohn DH (2001). Antifibrotic effect of extracellular biopolymer from submerged mycelial cultures of Cordyceps militaris on liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation and scission in rats. Arch. Pharm. Res. 24(4):327–32. (Read abstract)

Yoo HS, Shin JW, Cho JH, Son CG, Lee YW, Park SY, et al (2004). Effects of Cordyceps militaris extract on angiogenesis and tumor growth. Acta Pharmacol. Sin., 25:657–65. (Read abstract)

Cho HJ, Cho JY, Rhee MH, Park HJ (2007). Cordycepin (3’- deoxyadenosine) inhibits human platelet aggregation in a cyclic AMP- and cyclic GMP-dependent manner. Eur. J. Pharmacol., 558:43–51. (Read Full Paper)

Park E-S, Kang D-H, Yang M-K et al (2014). “Cordycepin, 3-deoxyadenosine, prevents rat hearts from ischemia/reperfusion injury via activation of Akt/GSK-3𝛽/p70S6K signaling pathway and HO-1 expression”. Cardiovascular Toxicology, 14(1):1–9. (Read abstract)

Tabrizchi R, Bedi S. (2001). Pharmacology of adenosine receptors in the vasculature. Pharmacol. Ther., 91:133–47. (Read abstract)

Choi DB, Cha WS, Park N, et al. (2011). Purification and characterization of a novel fibrinolytic enzyme from fruiting bodies of Korean Cordyceps militaris. Bioresource Technol., 102:3279–85. (Read abstract)

Research has revealed that cordycepin could be useful as a preventive agent against various diseases caused by clostridia, i.e. bacteria of Clostridium sp. that are spore-forming, mostly anaerobic found in soil or in the intestine.

Wang J, Liu Y-M, Cao W, Yao K-W, Liu Z-Q, Guo J-Y (2012). “Anti-inflammation and antioxidant effect of cordymin, a peptide purified from the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps sinensis, in middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats”. Metabolic Brain Disease, 27(2), 159–165. (Read abstract)

Cross BE, Edinberry MN (1972). Pigments of Gnomonia erythrostoma. Part I. The structures of erythrostominone, deoxyerythrostominone, and deoxyerythrostominol. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin. I.3:380–390. (Read abstract)

Cross BE, Zammitt LJ (1973). Pigments of Gnomonia erythrostoma. Part II. Epierythrostominol and epideoxyerythrostominol. J. Chem. Soc. Perkin. I 23:2975–2976. (Read abstract)

Ahn YJ, Park SJ, Lee SG, et al (2000). Cordycepin: selective growth inhibitor derived from liquid culture of Cordyceps militaris against Clostridium spp. J. Agric. Food Chem., 48:2744–8. (Read abstract)

Numerous studies have shown that C. militaris has a protective effect against high glucose-induced oxidative stress in human endothelial cells and related complications.

Kim, D-J, Kang, Y-H, Kim K K, Kim T-W, Park J-B, Choe M (2017). “Increased glucose metabolism and alpha-glucosidase inhibition in Cordyceps militaris water extract-treated HepG2 cells.” Nutrition Research and Practice 2017;11(3):180-189. (Read full paper)

Choi SB, Park CH, Choi MK, Jun DW, Park S (2004). Improvement of insulin resistance and insulin secretion by water extracts of Cordyceps militaris, Phellinus linteus, and Paecilomyces tenuipes in 90% pancreatectomized rats. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem. 68(11):2257–64. (Read full paper)

Studies have shown that C. militaris acts as anti-fatigue agent, i.e. prevents or reduces fatigue.

Song J, Wang Y, Teng M, Cai G, Xu H, Guo H, Liu Y, Wang D, Teng L (2015). Studies on the Antifatigue Activities of Cordyceps militaris Fruit Body Extract in Mouse Model. Evid, Based Complement Alternat. Med. 2015:174616. (Read full paper)

Zhang Q-H,Chen H-W, Wuc D-M (2015). Effection of Anti-Fatigue of Selenium-Rich Cordyceps Militaris in Mice. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 46, 1351-1356. (Read full paper)

Jung K, Kim IH, Han D (2004). Effect of medicinal plant extracts on forced swimming capacity in mice. J Ethmopharmacol, 93, pp. 75-81. (Read abstract)

Mizuno T (1999). Medicinal effects and utilization of Cordyceps (Fr.) Link (Ascomycetes) and Isaria Fr. (Mitosporic Fungi) Chinese caterpillar fungi, “Tochukaso” (Review). Intl J Med Mushroom, 1, pp. 251-261. (Read abstract)

Researches has shown cordycepin’s anti-fibrotic effects – the blocking or preventing of tissue scarring – in liver fibrosis.

Nan JX, Park EJ, Yang BK, Song CH, Ko G, Sohn DH (2001). Antifibrotic effect of extracellular biopolymer from submerged mycelial cultures of Cordyceps militaris on liver fibrosis induced by bile duct ligation and scission in rats. Arch. Pharm. Res. 24(4):327–32. (Read abstract)

Researches hasve revealed that the peptide cordymin which is present in C. militaris prevents pathogenic fungi from infecting agricultural crops and from causing diseases in plants. Cordymin exerts antifungal activity against several fungal species and antifungal peptides may protect Bridge or lead from Ccordyceps to cordycepin — then boost cordycepin and review the flow to remind readers that it is Ccordycepin that is the main focus — main active ingredient that is unique and believed to be the compound that offers the health benefits. Both aanimals and human from debilitating infections and fungal diseases.

Wong JH, Bg TB, Wang HX, et al. (2011). Cordymin, an antifungal peptide from the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris. Phytomedicine, 18:387–92. (Read abstract)

Park BT, Na KH, Jung EC, Park JW, Kim HH (2009). Antifungal and Anticancer Activities of a Protein from the Mushroom Cordyceps militaris. Korean J Physiol Pharmacol. 13(1):49-54. (Read full paper)

Shih IL, Tsai KL, Hsieh C (2007). Effects of culture conditions on the mycelial growth and bioactive metabolite production in submerged culture of Cordyceps militaris Biochem Eng J, 33, pp. 193-201. (Read full paper)

Mao XB, Zhong JJ (2006). Significant effect of NH4+ on cordycepin production by submerged cultivation of medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris Enzyme Microb Technol, 38, pp. 343-350. (Read abstract)

Many studies have revealed that cordycepin has been shown to inhibit the growth of various tumor cells, including activity against leukemic cells, preventing or inhibiting the unregulated proliferation of the blood-forming cells of the bone marrow.

Kodama EN, McCaffrey RP, Yusa K, Mitsuya H (2000). Antileukemic activity and mechanism of action of cordycepin against terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-positive (TdT+) leukemic cells. Biochem. Pharmacol., 59: 273-281. (Read abstract)

Research has shown that cordycepin has anti-herpes activity and probably a broader antiviral spectrum.

Ohta Y, Lee JB, Hayashi K, et al. (2007). In vivo anti-influenza virus activity of an immunomodulatory acidic polysaccharide isolated from Cordyceps militaris grown on germinated soybeans. J. Agric. Food Chem., 55:10194–9. (Read abstract)

De Julian-Ortiz JV, Galvez J, Munoz-Collado C, Garcia-Domenech R, Gimeno-Cardona C (1999). Virtual combinatorial syntheses and computational screening of new potential anti-herpes compounds. J. Med. Chem., 17: 3308-3314. (Read full paper)

Pharmacological effects include mild anti-malarial activity, effective in the treatment of malaria, an infectious disease caused by protozoan parasites that can be transmitted by the bite of the Anopheles mosquito or by contaminated needle.

Jaturapat A, Isaka M, Hywel-Jones NL, Lerwerawat Y, Kamchonwongpaisan S, Kirtikara K, et al (2001). Bioxanthracenes from the insect pathogenic fungus Cordyceps pesudomilitaris BCC 1620. I. Taxonomy, fermentation, isolation and antimalarial activity. J. Antibiot., 54:29–35. (Read abstract)

Kittakoop P, Punya J, Kongsaeree P, Lertwerawat Y, Jintasirikul A, Tanticharoen M, Thebtaranonth Y (1999). Bioactive naphthoquinones from Cordyceps unilateralis. Phytochemistry, 52:453–457. (Read abstract)

Sugar AM, McCaffrey RP (1998). Antifungal activity of 3′-deoxyadenosine (cordycepin). Antimicrob Agent Chemother, 42 (6), pp. 1424-1427. (Read full paper)

Various studies have demonstrated that C. militaris inhibits metastasis, i.e. the spread of cancer cells from the initrialinitial or primary site of disease to another part of the body.

Jin Y, Meng X, Qiu Z, Su Y, Yu P, Qu P (2018) Anti-tumor and anti-metastatic roles of cordycepin, one bioactive compound of Cordyceps militaris. Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences 25: 991-995. (Read full paper)

Shih IL, Tsai KL, Hsieh C (2007). Effects of culture conditions on the mycelial growth and bioactive metabolite production in submerged culture of Cordyceps militaris. Biochem Eng J, 33, pp. 193-201. (Read full paper)

Liu J, Yang S, Yang X, Chen Z, Li J (1997). Anticarcinogenic effect and hormonal effect of Cordycceps militaris Zhongguo Yao Za Zhi, 22 (2), pp. 111-113. (Read abstract)

Studies have indicated the anti-microbial effects of C. militaris, such as the growth inhibition of microorganisms and especially pathogenic microorganisms.

Dong CH, Yang T, Lian T (2014) A comparative study of the antimicrobial, antioxidant, and cytotoxic activities of methanol extracts from fruit bodies and fermented mycelia of caterpillar medicinal mushroom Cordyceps militaris (Ascomycetes). Int J Med Mushrooms, 16(5):485-95. (Read abstract)

Reis FS, Barros L, Calhelha RC, Ciric A, van Griensven LJ, Sokovic M, Ferreira IC (2013) The methanolic extract of Cordyceps militaris (L.) Link fruiting body shows antioxidant, antibacterial, antifungal and antihuman tumor cell lines properties. Food Chem Toxicol 62:91-8. (Read abstract)

Park SJ (1996). Growth responses of intestinal microorganisms to tochukaso, mushroom and tropical plant, and cordycepin from Cordycceps militaris. M. S. Thesis. Seoul National University, Suwon, Republic of Korea.

Many studies have noted that C. militaris possess antioxidant activity and specifically an exopolysaccharide which enhances adaptive immune responses, together with health protecting and anti-cancer functions.

Wang J, Liu Y-M, Cao W, Yao K-W, Liu Z-Q, Guo J-Y (2012). “Anti-inflammation and antioxidant effect of cordymin, a peptide purified from the medicinal mushroom Cordyceps sinensis, in middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats”. Metabolic Brain Disease, 27(2), 159–165. (Read abstract)

Lin R, Liu H, Wu S, et al. (2012). Production and in vitro antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharide by a mutant, Cordyceps militaris SU5- 08. Int. J. Biol. Marcromol., 51:153–7. (Read abstract)

Wu F., Yan H, Ma X, Jia J, Zhang G, Guo X, Gui Z (2011). Structural characterization and antioxidant activity of purified polysaccharide from cultured Cordyceps militaris. African J. Microbiol. Research, 5(18):2743-2751. (Read full article)

Yu RM, Yang W, Song LY, Yan CY, Zhang Z, Zhao Y (2007) Structural characterization and antioxidant activity of a polysaccharide from the fruiting bodies of cultured Cordyceps militaris. Charbohydrate Polym. 70, pp. 430-436. (Read full paper)

Chen C, Luo SS, Li Y, Sun YJ, Zhang CK (2004). Study on antioxidant activity of three Cordyceps sp. by chemiluminescence. Shanghai J Trad Chinese Med, 38(7), pp. 53-55. (Read abstract – Chinese)

Studies have revealed the protective effects of C. militaris against oxidative damage and free radicals that are known to cause ageing.

Li XT, Li HC, Li CB, et al (2010). Protective effects on mitochondria and anti-aging activity of polysaccharides from cultivated fruiting bodies of Cordyceps militaris. Am. J. Chin. Med., 38:1093–106. (Read abstract)

Chu HL, Chien JC, Duh PD (2011). Protective effect of Cordyceps militaris against high glucose-induced oxidative stress in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Food Chem. 129:871–876. (Read abstract)

Park JM, Lee JS, Lee KR, Ha S-J, Hong EK (2014) Cordyceps militaris Extract Protects Human Dermal Fibroblasts against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis and Premature Senescence. Nutrients, 6(9): 3711–3726. (Read full article)

A lectin (i.e. sugar-binding protein that is highly specific for sugar moieties of other molecules) was identified to be present in C. militaris. There are many reports of mushroom lectins with mitogenic (i.e. causing cell division or transformation), cytotoxic (i.e. toxic to cells), antiproliferative (i.e. prevents the spread of malignant cells into surrounding tissues), and anti-tumor (i.e. preventing or inhibiting the formation or growth of tumors) activities.

Okawa Y, Murakami H, Kuraoka T, Mine R, Kobayashi H (2018) Specific Antiproliferative Activity against Several Human Cancer Cells Possessed by Cordyceps militaris Grown in Viable Pupa of Silkworm Raised under Sterile Environment. International Journal of Current Microbiology and Applied Sciences 7 (2):988-996. (Read full article)

Wong JH, Wang H, Ng TB (2009). A haemagglutinin from the medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris, Biosci. Rep., 29: 321-327. (Read full paper)

Jung EC, Kim KD, Bai CH, Kim JC, Kim DK, Kim HH (2007). A mushroom lectin from ascomycete Cordyceps militaris. Biochem. Biophys. Acta. Gen. Subj., 1770:833–8. (Read abstract)

Wu Z-L, Wang X-X, Chen WY (2000). Inhibitory effect of Cordyceps sinensis and Cordyceps militaris on human glomerular mesangial cell proliferation induced by native LDL. Cell Biochem. Funct. 18(2): 93–7. (Read abstract)

Liu J, Yang S, Yang X, Chen Z. Li J (1997). Anticarcinogenic effect and hormonal effect of Cordyceps militaris. Zhongguo Yao Za Zhi. 22(2), pp. 111-113. (Read abstract)

Napthaquinones are chemical constituents found in C. militaris, which fight diseases caused by protozoa (e.g. malaria, amebic dysentery, vaginal infection, pneumonia), by destroying protozoa or inhibiting their growth and ability to reproduce.

Trigg P, Gutteridge WE, Williamson J (1971). The effect of cordycepin on malarial parasites. Trans R Soc Trop Med, 65, pp. 514-52. (Read abstract)

Das SK, Masuda M, Sakurai A, Sakakibara M (2010) Medicinal uses of the mushroom Cordyceps militaris: current state and prospects. Fitoterapia 81(8):961-8. (Read abstract)

Researchers have shown that cordymin, a peptide found in C. militaris elicits a reduction in the production of breast cancer cells and it could be a candidate for the breast cancer treatment.

Wong JH, TB Ng, Wang H, Sze SC, Zhang KY, Li Q, Lu X. (2011) Cordymin, an antifungal peptide from the medicinal fungus Cordyceps militaris. Phytomedicine 15;18(5):387-92. (Read abstract)

Overgaard-Hansen K (1964). The inhibition of 5-phosphoribosyl-1-pyrophosphate formation by cordycepin triphosphate in extracts of Ehrlich ascites tumor cells. Biochim. Biophys. Acta., 80: 504-507 (Read abstract)

Kim HS, Kim JY, Kang JS, et al. (2010). Cordlan polysaccharide isolated from mushroom Cordyceps militaris induces dendritic cell maturation through toll-like receptor 4 signalings. Food Chem. Toxicol., 48:1926–33. (Read abstract)

Dong JZ, Wang SHH, Ai XR, et al. (2013). Composition and characterization of cordyxanthins from Cordyceps militaris fruit bodies. J. Funct. Foods, 5:1450–5. (Read abstract)

Jung EC, Kim KD, Bai CH, Kim JC, Kim DK, Kim HH (2007). A mushroom lectin from ascomycete Cordyceps militaris. Biochem. Biophys. Acta. Gen. Subj., 1770:833–8. (Read abstract)

Researches have shown that C. militaris improves sperm quality and quantity and play an important role in sexual function enhancement.

Lin WH, Tsai MT, Chen YS, Hou RC, Hung HF, Li CH, Wang HK, Lai MN, Jeng KC (2007) Improvement of sperm production in subfertile boars by Cordyceps militaris supplement. Am J Chin Med 35(4):631-41. (Read abstract)

Yu RM, Yang W, Song LY, Yan CY, Zhang Z, Zhao Y (2007) Structural characterization and antioxidant activity of a polysaccharide from the fruiting bodies of cultured Cordyceps militaris. Charbohydrate Polum, 70, pp. 430-436. (Read full paper)

References with all the medicinal uses of C. militaris:

Das SK, Masuda M, Sakurai A, Sakakibara M (2010). Medicinal uses of the mushroom Cordyceps militaris: Current state and prospects. Fitoterapia, 81:961–968. (Read abstract)

Holliday J, Cleaver M (2008). Medicinal Value of the Caterpillar Fungi Species of the Genus Cordyceps (Fr.) Link (Ascomycetes). A Review. Int. J. Med. Mushrooms, 10(3):219–234. (Read abstract)

Paterson RRM (2008). “Cordyceps—a traditional Chinese medicine and another fungal therapeutic biofactory?” Phytochemistry, 69(7)1469–1495. (Read full paper)

Ng TB, Wang HX (2005). Pharmacological actions of Cordyceps, a prized folk medicine. J. Pharm. Pharmacol., 57:1509–19. (Read abstract)